The band was founded in early 2001 in Raleigh, North Carolina by vocalist Tommy Rogers, guitarist Paul Waggoner, drummer Will Goodyear, guitarist Nick Fletcher (formerly Empire Falls), and bassist Jason King.
Between the Buried and Me's first release was a three-song demo, containing the tracks "Use of a Weapon," "What We Have Become," and "More of Myself to Kill." These three tracks were re-recorded for the band's first full-length album, Between the Buried and Me, released on Lifeforce Records in 2002. Musical style varied, with hints of death metal, grindcore, indie, and thrash metal. This album includes the track "Arsonist," a protest against the beliefs and practices of the Westboro Baptist Church in Topeka, Kansas. The song "Aspirations" became the band's first music video. This album is not widely known and the tracks are rarely played live, but it did get the attention of Victory Records, to which they later signed. Victory Records reissued the album in 2004 as an enhanced CD.
In 2003, the band released their second album, The Silent Circus. The hit single "Mordecai" was produced as their second music video. The album was re-released in 2006 with a DVD which included a full live performance in Carrboro, North Carolina. On this album, drummer Mark Castillo replaced Will Goodyear. Also, bassist Dan Briggs replaced Jason King; Briggs had been a member of Espinaca, Nemo, and MFWC. Drummer Mark Castillo and guitarist Nick Fletcher were replaced by Blake Richardson and Dustie Waring, both of Glass Casket.
In 2005, Between the Buried and Me released their third album, Alaska. The title track "Alaska" became their third music video.
In 2006, the band released The Anatomy Of..., a collection of covers of bands that inspired Between the Buried and Me, including Metallica, King Crimson, Queen, Pink Floyd, Earth Crisis, and Counting Crows.
In September 2007, the band released their fourth studio album, Colors. The band has said that "it's a 65 minute opus of non stop pummeling beautiful music... we have described this release as 'new wave polka grunge.'" Elsewhere, they have also described it as "adult contemporary progressive death metal.". On November 1, 2008, MTV2 was to show their live performance of "Informal Gluttony" on Headbangers Ball.
On November 6th, the song "Prequel to the Sequel" was made available as downloadable content for Rock Band and Rock Band 2 on the Playstation Store and Xbox Live Marketplace.
As of December 13, 2008, the band has one song written for their yet untitled album to be released in 2009. The song has been described using the adjectives, "noisy Coalesce breakdown, 3/4 Mastodon groove, 9/8 Mars Volta, Queen chromatic build up, and Megadeth chorus." The writing will temporarily cease in January when the band tours Australia with Bleeding Through and other bands. In the meantime, Dan Briggs' side project Orbs will be recording their debut full-length album. The band will then return to the writing stages in mid February.